Litmus is a water-soluble mixture of different dyes extracted from lichens, especially Roccella tinctoria. It is often absorbed onto filter paper to produce one of the oldest forms of pH indicator, used to test materials for acidity. Blue litmus paper turns red under acidic conditions and red litmus paper turns blue under basic (i.e. alkaline) conditions,with the color change occurring over the pH range 4.5-8.3 at 25 °C (77 °F). Neutral litmus paper is purple.Litmus can also be prepared as an aqueous solution that functions similarly.Under acidic conditions, the solution is red, and under basic conditions, the solution is blue.